CPR First Aid

How Can You Survive if You are in Shock?

How Can You Survive if You are in Shock?

Shock, a potentially fatal illness, can develop when the body’s reaction to an abrupt, severe injury or emotional upheaval overwhelms the system. Knowing the warning signs and symptoms of shock and how to react is crucial since shock can result in death. This blog post will cover the definition of shock, its symptoms, and most important, answering the question of: how can you survive if you are in shock?  

Why is Adrenaline Contraindicated In Hypovolemic Shock?

According to ascia, Adrenaline is for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening, severe allergic reaction and should always be treated as a medical emergency. Adrenaline (epinephrine) injected into the outer mid-thigh muscle is the first line of treatment for anaphylaxis.

However, Adrenaline is contraindicated when you have a hypovolemic shock. According to the National Library of Medicine (NIH) Adrenaline, Epinephrine (Adrenaline) is often administrated intravenously to increase blood pressure during shock states. However, some studies have shown that intravenous injection of epinephrine may elicit a remarkable decrease in blood pressure after an initial increase, which is detrimental to patients, especially in shock states.

According to ascia, Adrenaline is for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening, severe allergic reaction and should always be treated as a medical emergency. Adrenaline (epinephrine) injected into the outer mid-thigh muscle is the first line of treatment for anaphylaxis.

What Is an Oligemic Shock?

According to the medical dictionary, an Oligemic Shock means shock associated with a pronounced fall in blood volume, sometimes resulting from increased permeability of blood vessels. This means using this term is similar to Hypovolemic Shock

What is Hypovolemic Shock?

Hypovolemic shock is a life-threatening condition that results when you lose more than 15 percent of your body’s blood or fluid supply and your heart function is impaired. It can occur due to any type of fluid loss, for example, as a result of dehydration or diarrhoea.

Severe fluid loss makes it difficult for the heart to pump enough blood to your body. As the fluid loss increases, hypovolemic shock can lead to organ failure. This requires immediate emergency medical attention.

What are the Symptoms of Hypovolemic Shock?

The symptoms of hypovolemic shock vary with the severity of the fluid loss. However, all symptoms of shock are life-threatening and need emergency medical treatment.

Generally, symptoms may include:

  • thirst
  • muscle cramps
  • decrease in blood pressure, or poor blood supply throughout the body
  • You may experience pain in your abdomen or your chest. You may also experience some neurological symptoms like confusion, agitation, or lethargy (drowsiness), which occur due to decreased blood flow to the brain.
  • Older adults are highly susceptible to shock, and children may not show symptoms of shock until they reach a more severe stage.

The symptoms of hypovolemic shock vary with the severity of the fluid loss. However, all symptoms of shock are life-threatening and need emergency medical treatment.

Stages of Hypovolemic Shock

Hypovolemic shock occurs in stages, and the symptoms may change as the condition progresses.

The Stages of the Condition are:

Class 1

At this stage, you would be losing less than 15 percent Trusted Source of your blood volume, which is about 750 millilitres (mL).

Your blood pressure and breathing will still appear normal, but you may begin to suddenly feel anxious and your skin may look pale.

Class 2

The blood volume loss in this stage ranges between 15 and 30 percent Trusted Source, which is typically 750 to 1,500 mL. Your heart rate and breathing may get faster. Your blood pulse pressure may narrow. Your systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure measurement) may still be normal.

Your blood pressure at the beginning of this stage may still be normal, though the bottom number of the measurement, the diastolic pressure, may be high.

Class 3

At this stage, you lose 30 to 40 percent Trusted Source of your blood volume, which is between 1,500 and 2,000 mL. You’ll experience a major drop in your blood pressure and begin to see changes in your mental status.

Your heart rate will rise above 120 beats per minute (bpm), your breathing will become faster, and you’ll see a decrease in the amount you urinate.

Class 4

Once you’ve experienced blood volume loss of more than 40 percent Trusted Source, your condition becomes critical. Your pulse pressure will be really low, and your heart will beat faster at more than 120 bpm.

You may experience:

  • extremely rapid, shallow breathing
  • extremely rapid heart rate
  • little or no urine output
  • confusion
  • weakness
  • weak pulse
  • blue lips and fingernails
  • lightheadedness
  • loss of consciousness
  • Your mental status will be obviously abnormal, and you’ll stop urinating almost completely. You may experience external and internal bleeding from areas in your body.

Hemorrhagic shock

When a fluid loss occurs exclusively as a result of severe blood loss, a more specific term is used to describe the condition. This is called “hemorrhagic shock.”

Depending on the location of the bleeding inside the body, the signs and symptoms may include:

  • abdominal pain
  • blood in the stool
  • black, tarry stool (melena)
  • blood in the urine
  • vomiting blood
  • chest pain
  • abdominal swelling

If you have any signs of haemorrhaging, you or someone near you must seek medical attention immediately.

While some symptoms like abdominal pain and sweating can point to something less urgent like a stomach virus, you should seek immediate medical attention when seeing groupings of these symptoms together.

This is especially true for the more serious symptoms. The longer you wait, the more damage can be done to your tissues and organs.

What Causes Hypovolemic Shock?

Hypovolemic shock results from significant and sudden blood or fluid losses within your body. In addition to actual blood loss, the loss of body fluids can cause a decrease in blood volume.

Different Causes of Hypovolemic Shock Include:

  • excessive or prolonged diarrhoea
  • severe burns
  • protracted, or excessive vomiting
  • excessive sweating
  • bleeding from serious cuts or wounds
  • bleeding from blunt traumatic injuries due to accidents
  • internal bleeding from abdominal organs or ruptured ectopic pregnancy
  • bleeding from the digestive tract
  • significant vaginal bleeding
  • endometriosis
  • blood in your urine

How Does Hypovolemic Shock Progress?

Blood carries oxygen and other essential substances to your organs and tissues. When heavy bleeding or fluid loss occurs, there’s not enough blood in circulation for the heart to be an effective pump. This is a hypovolemic shock.

As you lose more fluid, you no longer have enough blood to effectively supply oxygen to your tissues. To make up for this, your body sends the remaining blood supply to the most important organs: the brain and the heart.

This means the rest of the body is even more in need of oxygen, and your tissues respond by producing lactic acid. As a result, the body enters acidosis, which is when your body fluid contains too much acid. Without timely treatment, this can lead to death.

What are the Signs of Shock and How Do You Treat it?

What is Shock?

Shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow. Shock can damage multiple organs, and requires immediate medical treatment as it can worsen rapidly.

There are many Specific Types of Shock Including:

  • Hypovolemic shock
  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Anaphylactic shock
  • Neurogenic shock
  • Obstructive shock

Causes of Shock

  • Loss of blood through internal or external bleeding
  • Loss of plasma or fluids, i.e. burns, vomiting, dehydration
  • Allergic reactions (Anaphylaxis)
  • Infections
  • Heart trouble, heart attack, or stroke
  • Poisoning by chemicals, gases, alcohol, or drugs
  • Snake and animal bites
  • Respiratory problems, chest trauma
  • Lack of oxygen
  • Obstructions caused by choking
  • Injuries of all types, both severe and minor

Signs and Symptoms of Shock

The signs and symptoms will vary slightly with the specific types of shock. The most important thing is for a first aider to recognise the signs and symptoms of a casualty going into shock so that they can assist the casualty and call 000 when appropriate.

Symptoms may include:

At first:

  • Rapid pulse
  • Pale grey blue skin
  • The capillary test will be slower
  • Sweating and cold clammy skin

As shock develops:

  • Casualty starts feeling cold (even on a warm day)
  • Weakness and giddiness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Thirst
  • Rapid shallow breathing
  • A weak thready pulse
  • As the brain’s O2 levels drop:
  • Restless, anxious and even aggressiveness
  • Yawn and gasp for air
  • Unconsciousness
  • Finally, the heart will stop

First Aid for Shock

First aid for shock includes the following:

  • If unconscious and breathing, place into the recovery position
  • If conscious – lay the casualty down flat onto their back
  • Promptly control any bleeding. Manage and treat all other injuries
  • Call 000 for professional assistance
  • Make the casualty comfortable, i.e. loosen clothing
  • Keep the casualty warm. Cover with a blanket if cold
  • Reassure and keep the casualty calm
  • Continue to monitor the casualty’s physical condition
  • You may moisten the casualty’s lips – but be sure that they do not eat or drink
  • If the casualty becomes unresponsive and not breathing normally, follow DRS ABCD

How Does Going Into Shock Kill a Person?

According to Healthline, blood carries oxygen and other essential substances to your organs and tissues. When heavy bleeding or fluid loss occurs, there’s not enough blood in circulation for the heart to be an effective pump. This is a hypovolemic shock.

As you lose more fluid, you no longer have enough blood to effectively supply oxygen to your tissues. To make up for this, your body sends the remaining blood supply to the most important organs: the brain and the heart.

This means the rest of the body is even more in need of oxygen, and your tissues respond by producing lactic acid. As a result, the body enters acidosis, which is when your body fluid contains too much acid. Without timely treatment, this can lead to death.

What is a Late Sign of Hemorrhagic Shock?

According to the National Library of Medicine, Systolic hypotension, oliguria, metabolic acidosis and cold clammy skin are late signs of shock.

CPR First Aid Australia’s Available Courses

Shock is a serious condition that can be fatal if not treated immediately. Here in CPR First Aid Australia, we have course options that you may enrol at. You can choose your preferred courses below:

    • NRT LogoHLTAID009 Provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation 
    • NRT LogoHLTAID010 Provide an emergency first aid response  
    • NRT LogoHLTAID011 Provide first aid –  formerly known as Level 2 or Senior First Aid. 
    • NRT LogoHLTAID012 Provide first aid in an education and care setting
    • NRT LogoHLTAID014 Provide advanced first aid
    • NRT Logo22578VIC Course in First Aid Management of Anaphylaxis
    • NRT Logo22556VIC Course in the Management of Asthma Risks and Emergencies in the Workplace

Do You Need General First Aid Qualification?

We recommend that the NRT LogoHLTAID011 Provide first aid.

  • This also includes CPR qualification. The Australian Resuscitation Council (ARC) recommends that this qualification is updated every 3 years.

Do You Need To Update CPR Qualification?

We recommend NRT LogoHLTAID009 Provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation.  

  • The Australian Resuscitation Council (ARC) recommends that this qualification is updated annually.

Do You Need First Aid Qualification To Work In The Childcare and Education Industry, that Includes Anaphylaxis and Asthma Training?

We recommend NRT LogoHLTAID012 Provide first aid in an education and care setting.

Are You Working With Children?

You will also be required to obtain first aid training qualifications in Asthma and Anaphylaxis. You need to check with the employer before enrolling, so that client gets the correct training for his or her circumstance.

ABOUT CPR FIRST AID

RTO No. 21903: CPR First Aid was founded in 2007. We specialise in providing first aid training in CPR, asthma and anaphylaxis for a range of workplaces including childcare, schools and other industries in NSW, VIC, SA, WA and QLD. We are a Registered Training Organisation with the Australian Skills Quality Authority (No 21903). Our courses and Units are VET-accredited for workplaces in Australia.

Conclusion

Shock is a potentially fatal illness that develops when the body responds to an abrupt, severe injury or emotional upheaval. Managing shock timely and quickly is important. Learning first aid tips will make you confident in managing these situations. We have training centres in different parts of Australia. Have fun learning with us. See you soon!

Subscribe now & receive Exclusive DISCOUNTS on your booking!

Share:

Facebook
Twitter
LinkedIn
WhatsApp
Pinterest
Email

More Posts

The answer is simple: DRSABCD is an easy way to remember the order of first aid steps when someone is injured.

What does DRSABCD stand for?

Imagine you are at work and someone falls ill. What should you do? Well, the answer may be simpler than you think – according to