CPR First Aid

what is seizure

What is Seizure

seizureA seizure is a sudden interruption to the brain’s normal function when an abnormal level of the electrical activity of the neurons takes place.

Epilepsy is the term given to describe a condition where someone is predisposed to recurrent, unprovoked seizures. However, anyone can have a seizure given the circumstances, not just people with epilepsy.

Tonic-clonic seizures are convulsive seizures where the body stiffens (tonic phase) followed by general muscle jerking (clonic phase) and involve the whole brain. The person loses

consciousness, their body stiffens and their limbs jerk. These seizures generally last up to three minutes.

Causes of Seizures other than Epilepsy:cause of seizure

  • Head Injury
  • Drug or alcohol intoxication
  • Fever (febrile convulsions)
  • Tumour
  • Certain prescribed drugs, such as some anti-depressants
  • Infection
  • Photo-sensitive epilepsy can be triggered by certain TV shows or video games
  • Seizures during or shortly after pregnancy can be a symptom of eclampsia

first aid for seizuresManagement – DO:

    • Most Important is to stay calm
    • Stay with the casualty
    • Look at the time to see how long the seizure lasts for
    • Move any bystanders and any objects out of the way which could injure the casualty, especially the head
    • Once the seizure has stopped, follow DRS ABCD
    • If unconscious and breathing, or if fluid/vomit/food in the mouth, roll the casualty into the recovery position
    • Maintain casualty’s privacy and dignity
    • They will likely be very tired, so let them rest and stay with them for reassurance
    • If the casualty has injured themselves during the seizure, attend to their injuries once it has finished

Management – DO NOT:

🗵 Do not put anything into their mouth

🗵 Do not restrain the casualty

🗵 Do not move the casualty unless they are in danger

🗵 Do not give them anything to eat or drink until they have fully recovered

medical assistanceYou need to seek medical assistance (Call 000) if:

  • The casualty injures themselves badly during a seizure
  • The casualty is having difficulty breathing after the seizure (this should be distinguished from normal laboured breathing because the casualty is puffed out)
  • If a second seizure follows the first
  • If the seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes (if the normal time is not known), or if the seizure lasts longer than usual (the casualty may have a bracelet or card in their wallet which outlines the usual time they last)
  • If the casualty is not known to have epilepsy

febrile convulsionsSeizures (Febrile Convulsions)

A high fever in a child may trigger a convulsion/seizure known as a febrile convulsion. This may occur in children aged from six months to five years. The convulsion can last a few seconds or
up to 15 minutes and is often followed by a brief period of drowsiness.

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Loss of consciousness
  • Muscles may stiffen, jerk or twitch
  • Face may go pale or blue
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Moaning, crying
  • Vomiting
  • Foaming at the mouth

Management – DO:

✓ Most Important is to stay calm and remain with the child
✓ Look at the time to see how long the seizure lasts for
✓ Lay the child onto a soft surface or the floor with a blanket underneath
✓ Remove any object which could injure the child
✓ Move the child only if they are in a dangerous location
✓ Loosen tight clothing and if possible, remove or open clothes from the waist up

Management – DO NOT:

  • Do not put anything into their mouth
  • Do not restrain the child
  • Do not put the child into a bath
  • Do not give them anything to eat or drink

Once convulsion has stopped:

  • Roll the child into the recovery position whilst drowsy
  • Place cool washcloths on the neck and forehead
  • Using tepid water (not cold), sponge the rest of the child’s body
  • Contact professional medical help (Call 000) if:
    o Convulsion lasted more than 5 minutes
    o Child does not wake up
    o Child had more than one convulsion in a short period of time
    o  Child has been injured or appears quite ill
  • Contact a local family doctor if:
    o  Convulsion lasted less than 5 minutes
    o  Child had a previous illness before the convulsion

 

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